Guidelines

  • Registers Herd Book contents.

    The Irish Aubrac Cattle Breed Society Limited, here after known as the “Society”, shall maintain one or more registers as follows.

    1. A register of the particulars of the pedigree, status and performance of eligible Aubrac pedigree cattle hereafter known as the “Animals”. (1 or more)
    2. Such information as the Council may from time to time decide.
  • Animals
    1. Characteristics of the breed:
      The fawn coloured coat can vary from wheaten to pale grey. The neck is darker in males. The muzzle and the area around the eyelids are black surrounded by some white hair. All the extremities must be black. The extremity of the tail and the outer hairs of the ears are black. The head, beautiful and expressive, has a short wide black muzzle and is carried proudly. It is an animal of medium size with deep and wide chest rounded hips and very strong correct legs.
    2. Breeding Objectives:
      To produce a cow with adequate milk, medium size, economically kept, long-lived, regular breeder and with a docile temperament. To produce a bull of adequate size, with good feed conversion and temperament, high kill out but all without forgetting the maternal orientations of the breed.
  • Registrations

    All calves born in Ireland must be registered at birth by their breeder with Animal Events (ICBF), for entry in the Main Herd Book (Class 1 and Class 2).

    1. To qualify for entry into the Main Section of the herd book an animal shall:
      -be descended from parents and grandparents entered in the Herd Book or another E.U. Herd Book for the breed;
      -be identified at birth according to the rules of the Herd Book;
      -have a pedigree established in accordance with the rules of the Herd Book.
    2. The Main Section of the herd book shall be divided into two classes:
      1. Class 1: These animals descend from parents 100% Aubrac (according to ICBF), comply with all the characteristics of the breed and are free from genetic defects. Ref on Certificates PED 1
      2. Class II: These animals meet the minimum criteria for entry in the Main Section but have an undesirable breed characteristic (e.g. white patches or white tail and/or are carriers of a genetic defect) Ref on Certificates Ped 2
    3. An animal from another Member State shall be entered in the class of the book whose criteria it meets.
    4. The Society reserves the right to refuse to accept the notification of birth of a calf where the data provided is deemed to be deficient or inaccurate. The Society reserves the right to impose a late registration penalty for any animal registered after 27 days of birth as well as full DNA parentage proof. All donors or bulls used for breeding purposes must have been blood/DNA typed by an approved laboratory before progeny can be accepted for registration.
    5. All AI dockets must be forwarded to the Society. Where more than one insemination is carried out, all the insemination certificates must be forwarded to the Society.
    6. In the case of a sire located outside the state, the member shall supply full pedigree details of the sire and mating records, certified by the Herd Book of the state of export to the Society. In the case of official mating records not being available, parentage verification through DNA will have to be carried out and the registration of the calf pending results. The onus is on the breeder to seek out this information.
    7. Embryos must be notified at the time of collection on the appropriate embryo registration form, which must be properly and accurately filled out and signed by both the owner of the donor female and the representative of the approved collection team. Original copy should be sent to the Society within 14 days of collection of the embryos. The breeder is advised to keep a photocopy for his/her own records.
    8. When an embryo notified as above in any way changes its status by means of thawing, implantation, change of ownership etc., this change of status must be notified to the Society on an approved Embryo Amendment Form appropriately signed.
    9. In the case of calves born as the result of embryo transfer, both donor sire and dam must be blood/ DNA typed and the resultant calf must have its parentage verified by an approved laboratory within 12 month of birth.
    10. The cost of any DNA/blood typing will be paid by the member and the Society reserves the right to request the owner to do additional DNA/blood typing at his/her own expense if thought necessary by the Council.
    11. The Society reserves the right to withdraw any certificate without refund if the animal fails parentage verification. The onus is on the breeder to ensure that all details on the Pedigree Certificate are correct. The Society will not be responsible for lost or mislaid forms.
    12. The Society reserves the right to carry out, at their discretion, random blood/DNA typing, at the breeder’s expense on all animals. In the event of an animal failing this verification, the Board may then decide to have all animals proposed for registration by the breeder blood or DNA verified for a period of 2 years.
    13. Each animal must be named, the first letter of the name must be that of the current Society year letter, for example each animal born in 2005 shall have a name commencing with the letter A.
    14. Only paid up members of the Society shall be allowed to register animals in the Society’s Herd Books.
  • Imported Livestock

    All calves born in Ireland must be registered at birth by their breeder with Animal Events (ICBF), for entry in the Main Herd Book (Class 1 and Class 2).

    1. To qualify for entry into the Main Section of the herd book an animal shall:
      -be descended from parents and grandparents entered in the Herd Book or another E.U. Herd Book for the breed;
      -be identified at birth according to the rules of the Herd Book;
      -have a pedigree established in accordance with the rules of the Herd Book.
    2. The Main Section of the herd book shall be divided into two classes:
      1. Class 1: These animals descend from parents 100% Aubrac (according to ICBF), comply with all the characteristics of the breed and are free from genetic defects. Ref on Certificates PED 1
      2. Class II: These animals meet the minimum criteria for entry in the Main Section but have an undesirable breed characteristic (e.g. white patches or white tail and/or are carriers of a genetic defect) Ref on Certificates Ped 2
    3. An animal from another Member State shall be entered in the class of the book whose criteria it meets.
    4. The Society reserves the right to refuse to accept the notification of birth of a calf where the data provided is deemed to be deficient or inaccurate. The Society reserves the right to impose a late registration penalty for any animal registered after 27 days of birth as well as full DNA parentage proof. All donors or bulls used for breeding purposes must have been blood/DNA typed by an approved laboratory before progeny can be accepted for registration.
    5. All AI dockets must be forwarded to the Society. Where more than one insemination is carried out, all the insemination certificates must be forwarded to the Society.
    6. In the case of a sire located outside the state, the member shall supply full pedigree details of the sire and mating records, certified by the Herd Book of the state of export to the Society. In the case of official mating records not being available, parentage verification through DNA will have to be carried out and the registration of the calf pending results. The onus is on the breeder to seek out this information.
    7. Embryos must be notified at the time of collection on the appropriate embryo registration form, which must be properly and accurately filled out and signed by both the owner of the donor female and the representative of the approved collection team. Original copy should be sent to the Society within 14 days of collection of the embryos. The breeder is advised to keep a photocopy for his/her own records.
    8. When an embryo notified as above in any way changes its status by means of thawing, implantation, change of ownership etc., this change of status must be notified to the Society on an approved Embryo Amendment Form appropriately signed.
    9. In the case of calves born as the result of embryo transfer, both donor sire and dam must be blood/ DNA typed and the resultant calf must have its parentage verified by an approved laboratory within 12 month of birth.
    10. The cost of any DNA/blood typing will be paid by the member and the Society reserves the right to request the owner to do additional DNA/blood typing at his/her own expense if thought necessary by the Council.
    11. The Society reserves the right to withdraw any certificate without refund if the animal fails parentage verification. The onus is on the breeder to ensure that all details on the Pedigree Certificate are correct. The Society will not be responsible for lost or mislaid forms.
    12. The Society reserves the right to carry out, at their discretion, random blood/DNA typing, at the breeder’s expense on all animals. In the event of an animal failing this verification, the Board may then decide to have all animals proposed for registration by the breeder blood or DNA verified for a period of 2 years.
    13. Each animal must be named, the first letter of the name must be that of the current Society year letter, for example each animal born in 2005 shall have a name commencing with the letter A.
    14. Only paid up members of the Society shall be allowed to register animals in the Society’s Herd Books.
  • Zootechnical Certificate

    The official certificate of registration printed on Society paper with the animal’s ancestry shall be issued to the Breeder by the Society as soon as reasonably possible, when all the registration criteria are met. The onus is on the breeder to verify that all the information on the certificate is correct and if not to contact the Society’s office with corrections.

  • Breeding Programme FAQ

    Breeding Programme

    of the

    IRISH AUBRAC CATTLE BREED SOCIETY LIMITED

    (hereafter known as the “Society”)

     

    Approved by the Council of the Irish Aubrac Cattle Breed Society

    on March 3, 2022

     

    With approval under the EU Legislation Regulation (EU) 2016/1012 by the

    Department of Agriculture, Food, and the Marine

     

    Contents

    Page

    1. Aims of the Breeding Programme…………………………………………………………………………. 2

    2. Name of the Breed………………………………………………………………………………………………2

    3. Geographical Territory………………………………………………………………………………………… 2

    4. Characteristics of the Breed………………………………………………………………………………….2

    5. System for Identifying Breeding Animals………………………………………………………………….2

    6. Procedure for Entry of Pedigree Animals………………………………………………………………….2

    7. Procedure for the Entry of Embryos………………………………………………………………………….3

    8. Imports………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4

    9. Selection and Breeding Objectives……………………………………………………………………………4

    10. Performance Testing……………………………………………………………………………………………..4

    11. Genetic Evaluation…………………………………………………………………………………………………5

    12. Division of the Breeding Book………………………………………………………………………………….5

    13. Technical Activities Outsourced………………………………………………………………………………6

    14. Authorised Derogations………………………………………………………………………………………….6

    15. Zootechnical Certificate………………………………………………………………………………………….6

    1. Aims of the Breeding Programme

    The aim of the society is to preserve and improve the Aubrac Breed by adhering to a strict breeding programme which maintains the breed characteristics, and using all available technology to improve the breed.

    2. Name of the Breed

    The name of the cattle breed is “Aubrac”.

    3. Geographical Territory

    The geographical territory being the island of Ireland to conduct it’s breeding programme.

    4. Characteristics of the Breed

    The fawn coloured coat can vary from wheaten to pale grey. The neck is darker in males. The muzzle and the area around the eyelids are black surrounded by some white hair. All the extremities must be black. The extremity of the tail and the outer hairs of the ears are black. The head, beautiful and expressive, has a short wide black muzzle and is carried proudly. It is an animal of medium size with deep and wide chest rounded hips and very strong correct legs.

    5. System for Identifying Breeding Animals

    a) All animals shall be identified in the Herd Book using the National Identification

    Number, which is displayed by ear tag. b) Every member who registers an animal in the Society’s herd book must register an approved herd prefix, which shall be applicable to all animals born in his/her herd and registered by that member either alone or jointly with any partner(s) or other person(s) in any one herd. c) A prefix shall consist of approved word(s), and the member shall pay a fee for the registration thereof. d) In addition to the herd prefix, each animal must have a name, which shall have as the first letter, the year designation letter as specified by the Council of the Society, of the year in which the animal was born.

    6. Procedure for Entry of Pedigree Animals

    The birth of every calf alive or dead to any dam registered in the Society’s Herd Book shall be notified within 27 days from the date of the birth of the calf with ICBF, or on agfood.ie.

    a) Notification should be made by the registered breeder, being a member of the Society, of the animal in question, either alone or jointly with any partner(s) or other person(s).

    b) The Council reserves the right to refuse the notification of birth of a calf where the data provided is deemed to be deficient or inaccurate.

    c) In the case of twin or multiple births a separate birth shall be recorded for each calf born alive or dead.

    d) The pedigree registration fee payable shall be as the Council of the Society may from time to time decide. Payment is due within 4 months of the date of the animals registered. Late payments will be subject to additional fees, which council may apply from time to time.

    e) Late pedigree registration for animals identified as pedigree, will be subject to the late registration fees and genomic analysis for parentage verification, at the Breeder’s expense.

    f) All bulls used for pedigree breeding purposes must be genotyped parentage verified, by an approved laboratory before any progeny can be accepted for registration. Exceptions may be considered by Council.

    g) Where calves are born as a result of insemination from a bull registered in the Society’s Herd Book or other qualified Aubrac Herd Book, Council reserves the right to request a copy of the official insemination certificate in cases where the Inseminator is not uploading his insemination records direct to the ICBF database. If such request is made the official AI docket/s should be forwarded within 7 days of the request. All insemination certificates must be fully completed. Where more than one insemination has been made all the insemination certificates shall be forwarded. In the event of the A.I documentation not being available the calf may have to be parentage verified by genotyping analysis carried out at an approved laboratory, prior to registration. If the insemination certificate is issued by a centre, which is not officially recognised by the Department of Agriculture & Food, then the resultant calf must be genotyped for parentage verification.

    h) Where calves are born as a result of DIY insemination a copy of the inseminator’s licence may be required to be forwarded to the Society along with a list of straws purchased. Failure to do so, when requested, may result in the animal being parentage tested. (DIY FORMS AVAILABLE FROM THE AUBRAC SOCIETY).

    i) When calves are born as a result of insemination with imported semen from a bull registered in another approved Herd Book, registration or notification will only be accepted provided that a copy of the bulls herd book certificate and Genotyping certificate are forwarded to the Society.

    j) If it is found that any detail of any AI certificate has been changed by the breeder, or someone acting on his/her behalf, the calf may be subject to DNA/Genotyping analysis for parentage verification at the owners’ expense, have fines levied, or be disqualified from the Herd Book. Parentage verification, by DNA or genotyping, of each 25th calf notified to the Society will be carried out. Laboratory costs for typing the calf and its dam will be borne by the breeder.

    2

    7. Procedure for the Entry of Embryos Entries of embryos

    Entries of embryos will only be considered that meet the requirements of the main section of the Herdbook. In the case of calves born as a result of the implantation of purchased/imported

    embryos the notification should be made by the person whose name appears on the official documentation supplied by the exporting country, including zootechnical certificate (in the case of imported embryos, or on the transfer certificate if purchased in Ireland. A calf born by Embryo Transplant will only be accepted for registration in the Herd Book provided that:

    a) the donor female has been notified to the Society on form ET 1, along with a copy of her DNA or Genotype profile prior to flushing. (This form is to be completed by the technician/MRCVS)

    b) the proposed sire’s DNA or Genotype profile is lodged with the Society and his pedigree should not contain any ancestors in common with the donor female at the parent and grandparent level.

    c) the flushing is carried out by an approved ova/embryo collection team

    d) details of the flushing are forwarded to the Society on form ET 2 (Implantation form), duly signed by the registered owner of the donor female and the representative of the approved collection team within 14 days of the flushing.

    ET 3 (Embryo Registration Form) has to be completed along with ET 2, and returned to the office.

    e) in the case of frozen embryos, the date of thawing and implanting must be notified to the Society on form ET 4, duly signed by the owner and the veterinary surgeon.

    3

    8. Import

    a) Each imported animal must be registered with the Society as soon as possible by submitting the official Herd Book Pedigree certificate of the country of origin together with the normal registration fee. Donor bulls of imported semen must be registered with the Irish Society in the normal manner and be Genotyped.

    b) Imported embryos should be registered with the Society, applying the same criteria and fees as home produced embryos. Copies of official documentation must be applied as appropriate, including copies of the official Herd Book. Both donor animals must be genomic /blood typed and the resulting calf’s parentage verified.

    c) Export of animals, embryos, semen etc., should comply with the national legislation in place at the time.

    9. Selection and Breeding Objectives In selection of breeding animals, members are encouraged to maintain the breed’s characteristics, and keep a good balance in size and conformation (ie. medium, no extremes). They should also focus on the following qualities of the breed:

    • Easy Calving

    • Short Gestation

    • Plentiful Milk Supply to Rear Calf

    • Docile

    • Long Lived

    • Good Forage Efficiency

    The Breeding objective is to have a national Aubrac herd:

    • producing cows with adequate milk, medium size, economically kept, long-lived, regular breeders and with a docile temperament.

    • producing bulls of adequate size, with good feed conversion and temperament, high kill out but all without forgetting the maternal orientations of the breed.

    The overall objective is to provide top quality breeding stock to both suckler and dairy farmers on the island of Ireland.

    10. Performance Testing

    The society provide performance testing for breeders, which is outsourced to ICBF. Data collected are compiled to form the “€uro-Star” Index. The €uro-Star Index is a breeding index designed to aid beef farmers in the selection of more profitable breeding animals.

    €uro-Star Indexes quantify the genetic component of an animal’s performance across all traits of importance for Irish suckler farmers. Whole Herd Perfomance Recording (WHPR) is available to breeders, to Linear Score their animals.

    4

    11. Genetic Evaluation

    The society also provide Genetic Evaluation for breeders, which again is outsourced to ICBF. Results of the genomic tests are added to the data, thus increasing the overall reliability of the €uro-Star figures. All these help to give a good indicator of the breeding potential of the animals.

    12. Division of the Breeding Book

    The herdbook shall have a Main section and a Supplementary section.

    a) To qualify for entry in the Main section of the herdbook an animal shall:

    i. Be descended from parents and grandparents entered in a herdbook of the same breed

    ii. Be identified at birth according to the rules of the Society’s herdbook

    iii. Have a pedigree established in accordance with the rules of the Society’s breeding programme.

    b) The main Section of the herd book shall be divided into two classes, Class I (Elite class) and Class II as follows:

    i. To qualify for entry in Class I of the Main section of the herdbook an animal shall comply with all the characteristics of the breed and be free from genetic defects and undesirable breed characteristics. Animals in this class are recommended for breeding.

    ii. To qualify for entry in Class II of the Main section of the herdbook an animal must meet the minimum criteria for entry in the Main Section at Rule 12 a), however, the animal does not meet the criteria for Class I, as he/she may be identified as being a carrier of a genetic defect or have undesirable breed characteristics.

    iii. Animals may be re-classified within the main section of the herdbook at any period during their lifetime.

    c) The supplementary section is available for animals that do not qualify for entry into the main section. To qualify for entry into the supplementary section:

    i. The animal must be identified and inspected as Aubrac by the Society.

    ii. The animal must be 75% Aubrac as per ICBF’s Tauris System.

    iii. The animal must be genotyped.

    5

    13. Technical Activities Outsourced

    The following technical activities are outsourced to ICBF:

    a) Core Functionality – Taurus (Electronic system for recording & maintaining pedigree of breeding animals entered into the herd book).

    b) Zootechnical Certificate generation and Supplementary certificate generation.

    c) Catalogue generation application.

    14. Authorised Derogations

    None.

    15. Zootechnical Certificates

    The zootechnical certificate printed on Society paper with the animal’s ancestry shall be issued to the Breeder by the Society as soon as reasonably possible, when all the registration criteria are met. The onus is on the breeder to verify that all the information on the certificate is correct and if not to contact the Society’s office with corrections. The procedure for the change of ownership is that the new owner receives the zootechnical certificate, when taking ownership of the animal, and submits it to the Society office. If everything is ok, a new zootechnical certificate will be reissued to the new owner, with name of the new owner displayed on the zootechnical certificate.

    6

  • Euro-Star Index explained

    The Euro-Star Index is a breeding index designed to aid beef farmers in the selection of more profitable breeding animals. Euro-Star Indexes quantify the genetic component of an animal’s performance across all traits of importance for Irish suckler farmers.

  • Two Overall Indexes in Beef

    The Euro-Star Index has two overall indexes – the Replacement Index and the Terminal Index. This is to facilitate the use of Euro-Star Indexes across different farming systems. Some farmers may breed their own replacements, in which case the Replacement Index is most relevant. Other farmers may sell all of their suckler progeny as weanlings or take them through to slaughter, in which case the Terminal Index is most relevant.

  • Replacement Index

    The Replacement Index is a monetary (€) figure which is expressed as profit per calving of each daughter i.e. a bull with a Replacement Index of €150 is expected to produce daughters that will leave, on average, €150 extra per calving over the base animal. There are 17 traits included in the Replacement Index. Each trait has its own Predicted Transmitting Ability (PTA). An animal’s PTA is the amount of a trait that it can pass on to its progeny. The PTA for each trait is then multiplied by the Economic Weight (monetary value for each unit of the trait). This generates a Euro value contribution for the trait. All of these values are then combined to add up to the overall Replacement Index. Table 1 details all of the traits included in the Replacement Index as well as their respective Economic Weights.

  • Star Ratings

    The star rating system (1-5 stars) was incorporated into the Euro-Star Index to make it easier for farmers to interpret – 5 stars being good, 1 star being poor. This concept has been largely successful in its adoption by the industry, but there are some important points to remember:

    • There are within and across breed stars. It is very important to know the difference. Within breed stars rank an animal only against other animals within its own breed. Across breed stars rank an animal against all animals across all breeds. An animal that ranks highly on a particular index or trait within its own breed might only be average or poor when ranked across all breeds.

    • There are multiple indexes and traits that have a star rating. A bull could be quoted as a “5 star bull”. But 5 stars for what? 5 stars on a certain trait or on one of the overall indexes? 5 stars within or across breed? Farmers need to ask these questions.

    • Look at the index or trait PTA first, then the star rating. It is easy to overly rely on the star ratings. While they are important and do tell you where an animal ranks, it is important to focus on the actual index or trait PTA value first. Currently, an animal with a Replacement Index of €100, for example, will be 5 stars across breed. A bull with a Replacement Index of €200 will also be 5 stars across breed. If compared on stars alone, one would think the bulls are equal (5 stars), but there is a vast difference in their actual Replacement Index figures.

    Trait Emphasis
    In both tables 1 and 2 you will see there is a column giving the trait emphasis percentage. The trait emphasis basically means the average contribution of each trait to the index of the average, proven AI bull. For example, carcass weight makes up 41% of the Terminal Index. This means that, on average, proven AI bulls are getting 41% of their Terminal Indexes from carcass weight. This is an average and some bulls will be getting more than 41% and some bulls will be getting less. Every bull will be different. Again, this is why it is important to look at the PTA values of each bull when looking at an index.

    Reliability
    Understanding reliability is an important element to interpreting the €uro-Star Index of any animal. Put simply, the reliability figure gives an indication as to how confident ICBF can be that an index or trait figure will not change in the future as more data is recorded. Where low reliability bulls are being used, it is important to use a team of bulls to protect against future fluctuations. Where bulls are being used on maiden heifers, it is important that they have a low calving difficulty figure (90%). Bulls with low reliabilities on calving difficulty should never be used on maiden heifers.

    1. Presentation/Documentation/Data protection and Limitations of Liability

      A condition of membership is that the member agrees to the Society storing on computer his/her transactions, Herd Book information or any other details which will be updated/maintained by the Society/ and or any Society approved third party.
      A condition of membership is that the member agrees to the Society publishing and or supplying any and all information relating to his/her transactions/Herd Book information or any other detail which the Society or any Society approved third party may choose to publish from time to time.
      A condition of membership is that the member agrees not to alter, change edit or amend any and all information presented on documentation supplied by the Society.
      A condition of membership is that the member agrees not to represent themselves, their views, ideas, or documentation as anything other than their own and as a single subscriber of membership to the Society.
      A condition of membership is that the member agrees to review all documentation, which is supplied by the Society upon receipt to ensure that it is correct and complete.
      A condition of membership is that the member agrees to return without delay any documentation supplied by the Society upon receipt on finding any document to be incomplete or incorrect.
      A condition of membership is that the member agrees to accept all legal responsibility for maintenance and presentation of documentation supplied by the Society related to any and all animals, which the member has registered in the Society’s Herd Book.
      A condition of membership is that the member agrees to return to the Society any and all documentation upon request from the Society when the Society so chooses, for inspection, review reissue of that documentation etc.
      A condition of membership is that the member agrees to sole liability for any breach of his agreement, and where the Society may be liable, it will be limited to:
      The replacement of the defective documentation where possible at no cost to the member,
      If the above remedy is not applicable, to refund any fees paid by the member to the Society for that defective documentation.
      Grievance procedure between the Irish Aubrac Cattle Breed Society Limited and a member of the Society
      The objective of this procedure is to provide a member who has a grievance with the Society an opportunity to have the grievance examined and resolved at the earliest practical moment and at the most local level possible.

      While the matter is being considered under the Appeals Procedure, the operation of the Society cannot be interrupted. The person(s) raising the matter shall continue to comply with the rules of the Society during the course of the examination of the matter in question. By so doing he/she will not create any precedent nor will his/her membership of the Society is prejudiced in any way in relation to the matter being processed.

      The procedure to apply shall be as follows:

      Stage 1

      A member who feels aggrieved in relation to any matter pertaining to Society business should, in the first instance, write to the Chairman of the Council of the Society, making it clear, that stage 1 of the appeal procedure is being invoked. The Chairman will reply as soon as is reasonably practicable, but I any case within thirty days from receipt of the letter from the appellant.

      Stage 2

      If the grievance is not resolved at Stage 1, or a reply is not forthcoming from the Council Chairman within 30 days, the member(s) may request in writing, that at their next Council meeting, the Council allow the member(s) to attend the meeting during the period that the grievance is being considered. The member will be allowed to make an oral submission on the grievance. The Council will then reconsider the issue and must communicate its decision to the appellant within thirty days.

      Stage 3

      If the issue remains unresolved after stage 2, the member(s) may request an independent hearing. The Council shall grant such a hearing. Appeals at stage 3 will be heard by an individual or group of individuals with appropriate expertise, agreed by both parties to the dispute. From the date of appointment of the person(s) hearing the appeal, the case will be heard and the decision taken will be communicated to both parties within three months. The person(s) hearing the case will decide on the appointment of costs, as appropriate.

      Stage 4

      Any dispute that remains unresolved after stage 3 may be pursued by invoking provisions under the legal personality of the Society: ICOS. (1963 Companies Act as well or just ICOS)

      The Society expects all its members to abide by the rules, regulations and standards established by the Society.

    2. General conditions

      General conditions
      Alterations of Herd Book Rules.
      The Herd Book Rules may be altered by the Board from time to time provided Board Members shall have received notification of the intention to propose an amendment at the same time as notification of the relevant Board meeting is received. Any alterations, addition, deletion or other amendment of these Herd Book rules shall be notified to each member within two weeks of the change being approved by the Board.

      Inspectors/Scorers
      Such inspectors/Scorers as required by these regulations will be appointed by the society or any Society approved third party (for example ICBF, French Herd Book) Such inspectors/ scorers must have received full and regular training, have compete knowledge and understanding of the breed, be impartial and fair and work in agreement with the rules of the Society. The Society shall appoint as many inspectors/scorers as deemed necessary at any point in time. The Society reserves the right to dismiss any inspector/scorer who does not follow these rules. Any breeder who should have a justified grievance with the scoring of an animal can appeal to the Council on receipt of the scoring results to get this scoring re-examined by an independent qualified party. Expenses occurred shall be at the charge of the breeder.

      Should any question arise concerning the meaning, interpretation or application of these byelaws, the decision of the Board shall be binding.